Development of USA (from 1778 to 1789)
See also : Political writing Autograph Coin Coins 1776-92 Gold coins Maps Textiles 18th century painting US painting before 1940
Chronology : 1770-1779 1780-1789
1778 Set of 3 US Colors
2006 SOLD for $ 5.1M by Sotheby's
Lot 1, sold for $ 12.3M, is a flag of the 2nd Continental Light Dragons taken in 1779 at the Battle of Pound Ridge.
The other three flags were sold together for $ 5.1M, lot 2. They constitute the 3rd Virginia Detachment color set, taken at Waxhaws in 1780.
One of them is in gold-yellow silk 128 x 115 cm painted with a beaver dropping a palmetto tree and sewn with a block of sky blue silk bearing the thirteen silver stars in the disorder of a constellation. The other two, a little smaller, are respectively in gold-yellow and blue silk. Their terminus post quem is the definition of their style by the Continental Army in 1778.
1779 Washington at Princeton by Charles Willson Peale
2006 SOLD for $ 21.3M by Christie's
Washington is towering by his tall stature and by his phlegm, and surprises his assistants by his abnegation and his virtues. It is not enough. He had never exercised a command on the battlefield and his weak and inexperienced army has everything to learn.
Everything seems easy for the British in December 1776, to the point that they decide to take up their winter quarters in New Jersey, waiting for the sunny days to capture Philadelphia. George Washington will soon be unable to pay his exhausted troops. In a heroic burst, he surprises the British garrisons in Trenton and Princeton. These were the first ever victories of the American army.
The war remains undecided, and they must continue to set an example. On January 18, 1779, the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania commissions a portrait of General Washington to Charles Willson Peale.
The young artist had made an early portrait of the hero at Mount Vernon in 1772. He had been part of the reinforcements from the militias of Pennsylvania who had contributed to the victories of Trenton and Princeton, and had been appreciated by the soldiers for the miniature portraits painted on the field of battle.
The work which responds to the order from Pennsylvania is a full-length standing portrait of Washington after the Battle of Princeton. The hero is displayed in his signature attitude of modesty, without the face or the clothing having been embellished. He puts his hand on a cannon. Symbols of victory include a column of British prisoners with their red coats. This oil on canvas 246 x 149 cm is kept at the museum of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
The strengthening of the young nation also includes an international propaganda to its new French and Spanish allies. Autograph replicas are made by the artist. One of them, oil on canvas 244 x 156 cm dated 1779, was conveyed to Spain by an American diplomat. The political message gradually lost its force and the painting ended up being bequeathed to a Capuchin school in the Basque region, where it was bought around 1918 by an antiquarian dealer from New York.
This portrait of Washington at Princeton was sold for $ 21.3M by Christie's on January 21, 2006, lot 547, from a lower estimate of $ 10M. Please watch the video prepared in 2015 by the auction house to remind the sale of this outstanding painting, the last of its type in private hands.
1784 The Map of Abel Buell
2010 SOLD for $ 2.1M by Christie's
The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ended the War of independence and defined the new external borders. It was ratified on January 14, 1784 by the US Congress and became applicable on May 12.
For Buell, this recognition of the United States is an opportunity. He prints a wall map, in four sheets with vertical joints for a total dimension of 115 x 129 cm, which he announces on March 31, 1784. McMurray's map, which refers to the same treaty, is manuscript and smaller, 67 x 96 cm.
Buell's map is the first map of the United States printed by an American in American land, and one of the very first US documents to receive a copyright. It is titled A New and Correct Map of the United States of North America. The title block includes the thirteen-star US flag.
Buell is not a geographer. His map reuses the work of colonial cartographers. The borders between the thirteen states are not yet fixed, and he takes the opportunity to extend his state, Connecticut, to Mississippi.
This map was only printed in two successive variants, before and after the copyright inscription. The first state is known in a single copy kept at the New York Public Library.
One of the six surviving copies of the second state was sold on December 3, 2010 by Christie's for $ 2.1M, lot 32. It has been hand colored and is one of the best preserved copies despite some misses on the edges of the sheets. The image of this specific copy is shared by Wikimedia.
The purchaser, David M. Rubenstein, entrusted its conservation to the Library of Congress. This philanthropist had bought three years earlier the last copy in private hands of the Magna Carta to lend it to the National Archives
1786 Joseph Brant by Gilbert Stuart
2014 SOLD for £ 4.1M by Sotheby's
The Mohawk captain Joseph Brant had been an unwavering ally of the British in the wars against the French and then against the American rebels. His mastery of the English language enabled him to become the most important negotiator of the Iroquois cause, and he was honored as such by King George III. He was a pious Anglican. Brant is an alteration of the first name given by white people to his father.
He made two diplomatic stays in London, in 1775-1776 and 1785-1786. Like the Polynesian Omai whose portrait was painted by Reynolds in 1776, he aroused curiosity in aristocratic salons, skillfully exploiting his "noble savage" personality and not hesitating to show himself in public in an Iroquois costume.
His second stay in London follows the Treaty of Paris of 1783, because of which the British could no longer keep the promises made to their native American allies. Joseph reunites with his only white friend, Earl Percy, of whom he had been a comrade in arms during the New York campaign in 1776. Percy acceded in 1786 to the Duchy of Northumberland.
Percy, who had a strong temperament, supported the Loyalist American painter Gilbert Stuart, in exile in England since 1775. A portrait of Joseph by Stuart, oil on canvas 76 x 61 cm, had been commissioned by him in 1786. Still in the ownership of the Dukes of Northumberland, it was sold by Sotheby's on July 9, 2014 for £ 4.1M from a lower estimate of £ 1M, lot 21.
The 43 year old Mohawk warrior has a tall feathered headdress and large silver ornaments on his coat. His upright and intelligent manner is in line with his diplomatic mission. The image is shared by Wikimedia.
1787 Brasher Doubloon
2021 SOLD for $ 9.4M by Heritage
The popular iconography seized on this patriotic symbol in 1786, with the engravings prepared by James Trenchard for the first two issues of Columbian Magazine. The eagle with its outstretched wings, the thirteen stripes on the breast shield, the olive branch and the arrows appeared in 1787 on the reverse side of the Cent and Half Cent from Massachusetts.
The first gold coin illustrated with these symbols is the New York-style Brasher doubloon, also in 1787. The finest of the seven known examples, graded MS65 by NGC, was sold for $ 9.4M by Heritage on January 21, 2021, lot 3934.
Brasher was a metallurgist and definitely not an artist, which is amply demonstrated by his Lima-style doubloon prepared in 1786. In the meantime he partnered with the designer John Bailey. The pieces are punch marked with his initials EB with two possible positions, on the wing and on the breast of the eagle. Although their centering and cutting are awkward, they are beautiful coins whose design is sharp enough to discourage counterfeiting. The centering is very good, with full readability all around.
Both sides are inspired by the national emblem. The eagle has all of its attributes, including the constellation of thirteen stars around its head. On the other side, the Eye of Providence shines its radiant light from above a pyramidal mountain. The inscription conforms to the federal motto E Pluribus Unum but the production is located in Nova Eboraca (New York).
Brasher's Lima-type and New York-type doubloons were not documented in period, which confirms how limited their use was. The gold alloy had undoubtedly been recovered by the melting of some jewelry. Brasher assayer's punch EB gave these coins an authorization for circulation and they are considered regular by numismatists.
A half doubloon is kept at the Smithsonian. It was made with the same dies and a thinner planchet. Unlike the doubloons of the same year but in accordance with the two known Lima style doubloons, some trimming was required to adjust the weight. This half doubloon was perhaps an intermediate version for testing the dies.
Heritage Auctions will offer the Donald G. Partrick Collection in a series of auctions over the next year, making available one of the most historic collections of American colonial coins ever assembled.https://t.co/lZtpZzLOKC#Coins #DonaldPartrick pic.twitter.com/0a798TEqkh— Heritage Auctions (@HeritageAuction) August 11, 2020
Join us tomorrow for a little F-U-N!— Heritage Auctions (@HeritageAuction) January 20, 2021
It is a coin any collector would love to own, but only one will be able to possess. We could only be talking about the 1787 New York-Style Brasher Doubloon!
Jan. 20-24 FUN US Coins Auction #HeritageAuctions #coins https://t.co/Jq3TVG58jP pic.twitter.com/wysPjhL8uk
2014 SOLD for $ 4.6M by Heritage
That specimen had been the discovery Brasher doubloon in the nineteenth century. It was at that time in the estate of an important dealer importer named Gilmor also known as an early collector of coins.
2005 SOLD for $ 3M by Heritage
It is the only New York type Brasher doubloon with the EB punch mark on the eagle's breast. A private sale at $ 7.395M was reported in December 2011.
The six other surviving units have the punch on the wing.
2005 SOLD for $ 2.4M by Heritage
1787 Autograph Letter by Washington
2009 SOLD for $ 3.2M by Christie's
George Washington, the hero of the War of Independence, is one of the most active proponents of this reform. In a letter written to his nephew on November 9, he explains that power is not given to people but will always be with the people.
This autograph letter of four large pages was sold for $ 3.2M from a lower estimate of $ 1.5M by Christie's on December 4, 2009. It is illustrated in the pre sale release by AuctionPublicity.
1789 Acts of Congress
2012 SOLD for $ 9.8M by Christie's
The founders of the nation are now trying to redefine the delicate balance between the executive and legislative branches while considering also the need for autonomy of each state. Their work is outstanding, since the system defined between 1787 and 1789 is still the foundation of the US law.
George Washington is one of the key figures in this success. On June 22, 2012, Christie's sold for $ 9.8M his personal copy of the main acts of Congress, lot 1. It gathers the Constitution, various acts including the creation of major Executive Departments, and the first draft of twelve articles known as the Bill of Rights for an effective and pragmatic definition of freedoms.
This collection was a working document for the new President. It is also a much valuable autograph : signed on the title page, it includes handwritten notes in the margin of several acts.
These 53 sheets 30 x 19 cm from 1789 are assembled in a binding probably made in the same year. They are in excellent condition.
Please watch the video shared by Fox News :