Nicolaus Germanus understood the need to integrate the recent discoveries within the work of Ptolemy. In 1477 he produced the first modern globes, celestial and terrestrial, for the Vatican Library.
In 1482, Nicolaus Germanus publishes the Cosmographia in a Latin translation by Jacobus Angelus, maintaining the attribution to Ptolemaeus but also inserting his own work. His Ptolemaic maps include for the first time Scandinavia and Greenland.
This edition produced by Lienhart Holle in Ulm is one of the finest incunabula, using wood blocks for printing the maps that are beautifully hand painted. It was a commercial failure but fortunately his undamaged equipment could be reused for the reissue by Reger in 1486.
The world map edited by Holle with Earth surrounded by the twelve Winds, 40 x 56 cm on a 42 x 58 cm sheet, was sold for $ 320K including premium at Christie's on April 1, 2014 over a lower estimate of $ 180K.
A Holle copy complete of its 133 leaves and 32 maps is estimated £ 350K, for sale by Sotheby's in London on November 4, lot 60.
A very fresh copy from the 1486 edition was recently discussed in this column. It was sold for £ 360K including premium by Sotheby's on April 29, 2014 over a lower estimate of £ 120K.